PIE is a product of the Institute for Integrative Research in Earth and Space Science (IIRESS)
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|Understanding the use of genetic methods in the control of mosquito borne disease under increased insecticide resistance and continued climate warming scenarios: Arthropod borne disease (ABDs), diseases transmitted to humans via arthropod vectors, are of major global health concern because of their high mortality rates and potential to undergo range expansions due to climate change (Mayer et al., 2017). Of the ABDs, mosquito borne diseases (MBD) account for the highest mortality rates with Dengue fever and malaria contributing to 486 thousand global deaths annually, or 79% of vector and parasitic disease (WHO 2000-2016 disease burden estimates)…||Health Impacts of Refugee Camps: The presence of refugee and migrant camps as the result of violent conflicts and economic distress is a global phenomenon that effects upwards of 21 million people globally (Esses et al., 2017) and presents numerous public health concerns. In order to understand the health impacts of individuals encountering refugee camp-type living conditions, I reviewed the literature and identified 10 recent articles published in the scientific literature. I identified a diverse array of published papers that represent camps from around the world and a broad range of health concerns including increased exposure to infectious diseases, reduced economic potential, and mental health concerns…|
|A Greater Need for Research into Environmental Effects of Hydraulic Fracturing in the U.S.: Hydraulic fracturing, a shale gas mining process that allows untapped gas resources to be harvested from ancient rock offers an economic boon for the United States. However, the pathways through which hydraulic fracturing can extoll negative effects on the environment have remained largely uninvestigated. One pathway, groundwater contamination has the potential to contaminate streams and other freshwater sources above ground. Groundwater contamination can occur when wastewater, the liquid byproduct of shale gas well formation, is recovered and either reused or sent to a water treatment facility. Another pathway…||US Fuel Economy Standards: An Overview of Trends in Manufacturer Fleet Distribution by Fuel Type US automobile emissions have been both a contentious issue from the political spectrum as well as from the consumer spectrum due to car manufacturers need to maximize profits and automobile efficiency, but also adhere to state and federal environmental regulations. While the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has laid out clear goals for auto manufacturers that sell cars in the US, its unclear what efforts those manufacturers have made to meet those standards…|
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